During the late 1990s, Congress enacted a series of laws that had significant impacts on the law of copyright. In 1998, Congress enacted the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, Pub. L. No. 105-298, 112 Stat. 2827 (17 . §§ 101 et seq.), which extended the terms of existing and new copyrights by 20 years, against the protests of several Lobbying groups. Also in 1998, Congress approved the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), Pub. L. No. 105-304, 112 Stat. 2860 (17 . §§ 101 et seq.), a broad-based piece of legislation that was designed to bring copyright law into the digital age.
The principle that shapes intellectualization involves Freud’s concept of Id, ego and super-ego . Ego is a conscious part of human personality , Id refers to unconscious, “dark” side of human nature driven by animal instincts, and super-ego is a controlling mechanism that adjusts people’s actions and behavior to social norms and expectations. The purpose of intellectualization is to isolate Id and make conscious aspects of life the only object of reflection and consideration. Therefore, this defense mechanism aims to protect ego from unconscious processes, which are often impossible to handle and control.