Auditing is the monitoring and recording of selected user database actions. It can be based on individual actions, such as the type of SQL statement run, or on combinations of factors that can include name, application, time, and so on. Security policies can cause auditing when specified elements in an Oracle Database are accessed or altered, including content. You can set up and adjust audit settings easily within the Enterprise Manager interface. With Enterprise Manager, you can view the database audit configuration and manage audited objects, privileges, and statements. You can also view the content of the audit trail. Out-of-box, Enterprise Manager also provides audit reports to help you monitor successful and failed login attempts, as well as SYSUSER operations.
A DBMS can also provide many views of a single database schema. A view defines what data the user sees and how that user sees the data. The DBMS provides a level of abstraction between the conceptual schema that defines the logical structure of the database and the physical schema that describes the files, indexes and other physical mechanisms used by the database. When a DBMS is used, systems can be modified much more easily when business requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disrupting the existing system and applications can be insulated from how data is structured and stored.